- Context: political changes, Russian revolution, 1917- social upheaval
- Moscow film school opened 1919, first dedicated film school, new theories etc
- Agitation propaganda, looking into how film can portray certain political ideologies
- Key principles: belief in films ability to transcend space and time
- The meaning of film is created not only in its spiritual and temporal composition but in the arrangement of shots in the editing stage
- Construction of political, economic, social and ideological meaning
- Privileging of the editing process, film is essentially born in the edit
- The kuleshov effect- co founder of school, saw editing could abolish real-world constraints, could create events only existed on screen, additional meaning created by audience because of the choice and order of shots.
- Sergei Eisenstein – 1969, montage, mixture of shots create meaning e.g. battleship Potemkin 1925 (recent from revolution) uprising of people, crucial moment in film- step scene, jump cuts, vibrant, juxtaposing. ‘strike’ 1925 Eisenstein’s 5 stages of montage: metric, edits based on length, rhythemic based on length and action, tonal length action lighting and shapes within the frame, over tonal
Avant Garde – ie the first
- European cinema emerging as an established artform
- Technological and financial means enabled artists ( Dadaists, surrealists) to experiment with film production as a means of expression
- Today the term ‘experimental cinema’ prevails, as its possible to make experimental films without the presence of any avant-garde techniques.
- Entr’acte(the in between) 1924
- Digital degrade to create different meanings.
- David lynch, twin peaks: fire walk with me (1992)
British kitchen sink drama (British new wave) 1954-1968
Every day locations, normal conditions, normal people
- Post war, immigration, soci0-economic, political conditions
- New artistic freedom brought about by technological developments
- Born out of free cinema documentary and sequence film society (Reisz, Richardson)
- Look back in anger (1958)
- Controversial, wouldn’t be shown in cinemas, realistic
- Everyday stories- interesting and new to audiences,- Saturday night, Sunday morning 1960
- This sporting life 1963- x rated films of their time- 18 or over
French new wave
- Born out of post-war French critical film theory
- Partly a practical response and antidote to the bloated Hollywood epics of the time injecting a sense of immediacy and urgency.
- Inspired by cinema verite documentary style (realism, truth)
- Wanted active viewers
- Film nerds of their generation
- Jump cuts, vibrant, discontinuity, yet still structured
- No establishing shots
- Directors wanted to break up film experience and make it fresh and exciting.
- Self reflective
- Auteur theory
- ‘breathless 1960’